Table Of Content

1. An Overview of Chemical Bioregulation in Vertebrates

I. The Comparative Vertebrate Approach

II. The Origins of Bioregulation

III. Categories of Bioregulators

IV. General Organization of Bioregulatory Systems

V. Cell and Tissue Organization of Bioregulatory Systems

VI. Homeostasis

VII. Organization and Goals for This Textbook

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

2. Methods to Study Bioregulation

I. The Scientific Method

II. Methods of Endocrine Analysis

III. Molecular Biology and Bioregulation

IV. Animal Models

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

3. Synthesis, Metabolism, and Actions of Bioregulators

I. Amino Acids, Amines, Peptides, and Proteins

II. Steroid Bioregulators

III. Thyroid Hormones

IV. Eicosanoids

V. Summary

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

4. Organization of the Mammalian Hypothalamus—Pituitary Axes

I. The Mammalian Pituitary

II. The Mammalian Hypothalamus

III. Tropic Hormones of the Adenohypophysis

IV. Regulation of Tropic Hormone Secretion in Mammals

V. The Nonapeptide Hormones

VI. The Pineal Gland

VII. Clinical Aspects of the NeuroendocrineSystem

VIII. Summary

Study Questions

Suggested Readings

5. The Hypothalamuse Pituitary System in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

I. The Pituitary Gland of Fishes: Anatomical Considerations

II. The Pituitary of Tetrapod Vertebrates: Anatomical Considerations

III. The Hypothalamus of Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

IV. Tropic Hormones of Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

V. Comparative Aspects of Hypothalamic Control of Pituitary Function in Non-Mammals

VI. Nonapeptide Neurohormones of the Non-Mammalian Pars Nervosa

VII. The Epiphysial Complex of Non-Mammals

VIII. Summary

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

6. The Hypothalamus—Pituitary—Thyroid (HPT) Axis of Mammals

I. Some Historical Aspects of Thyroid Physiology

II. Development and Organization of the Mammalian Thyroid Gland

III. Synthesis, Secretion, Action, and Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones

IV. Factors That Influence Thyroid Function in Mammals

V. Biological Actions of Thyroid Hormones in Mammals

VI. Clinical Aspects of Thyroid Function

VII. Summary

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

7. The Hypothalamuse—Pituitary—Thyroid (HPT) Axis of Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

I. Evolution of the Thyroid Gland and Its Functions

II. Comparative Thyroid Physiology

III. Summary

Study Questions

Selected Reading

8. The Mammalian Adrenal Glands: Cortical and Chromaffin Cells

I. The Mammalian Adrenal Cortex

II. Biosynthesis and Transport of Corticosteroids

III. Secretion and Actions of Glucocorticoids

IV. Allostasis and Allostatic Load

V. Aldosterone: The Principal Mammalian ""Mineralocorticoid""

VI. Endocrine Disruption of Adrenal Cortex Function

VII. Clinical Aspects of the Adrenal Axis

VIII. The Mammalian Adrenal Medulla

IX. Summary

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

9. Comparative Aspects of Vertebrate Adrenals

I. Comparative Aspects of Adrenocortical Tissue

II. Physiological Roles for Corticosteroids in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

III. RenineAngiotensin System in Non-Mammals

IV. Natriuretic Peptides (NPs) in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

V. Evolution of Chromaffin Tissue and Adrenal Medullary Hormones

VI. Endocrine Disruption of Corticosteroid Functions in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

VII. Summary

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

10. The Endocrinology of Mammalian Reproduction

I. General Features of Mammalian Reproduction

II. Reproduction in Monotremes and Marsupials

III. Reproduction in Eutherian Mammals

IV. Endocrine Regulation in Eutherian Males

V. Endocrine Regulation in Eutherian Females

VI. Reproductive Cycles in Selected Eutherian Females

VII. Endocrine Disruptors and Mammalian Reproduction

VIII. Major Human Endocrine Disorders Related to Reproduction

IX. Summary

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

11. Comparative Aspects of Vertebrate Reproduction

I. Some General Features of Vertebrate Reproduction

II. Reproduction in Agnathan Fishes: Cyclostomes

III. Reproduction in Chondrichthyean Fishes

IV. Reproduction in Bony Fishes

V. Reproduction in Amphibians

VI. Reproduction in Reptiles

VII. Reproduction in Birds

VIII. Endocrine Disruption of Reproduction in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

IX. Summary

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

12. Chemical Regulation of Feeding, Digestion and Metabolism

I. Regulation of Feeding

II. Regulation of Digestion

III. The Mammalian Pancreas

IV. Hormones Regulating Mammalian Metabolism

V. Clinical Aspects of Pancreatic Function

VI. Summary

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

13. Comparative Aspects of Feeding, Digestion, and Metabolism

I. Hormones and Feeding in Non-Mammals

II. Hormones and Digestion in Non-Mammals

III. Comparative Aspects of the Endocrine Pancreas

IV. Summary

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

14. Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis

I. Importance of Calcium and Phosphate

II. Bone Formation and Resorption in Mammals

III. Endocrine Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis in Mammals

IV. Major Clinical Disorders Associated with Calcium Metabolism

V. Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

VI. Summary

Study Questions

Suggested Reading