Journal Articles

Reconceptualizing Tourism

This article argues that in order to facilitate a more effective transition to sustainability, tourism researchers need to keep abreast of transformations occurring in related fields, especially ecosystem ecology, ecological economics, global change science, and complexity theory. New knowledge from these spheres relating to complex adaptive systems, a necessary retreat from reductionism, extensive integration of human and natural systems, new interpretations of sustainability, and the emergence of sustainability science is of great relevance to contemporary tourism study. The article provides an introduction to the potentially extensive application of this knowledge to tourism and concludes by suggesting a reconceptualization of the field of study to accommodate it.

The Influence of Market Heterogeneity on the Relationship Between a Destination’s Image and Tourists’ Future Behaviour

In the past decade, companies and academics have become aware of the great benefits of maintaining a solid base of loyal customers. Such customer loyalty is also important to other entities—such as tourist destinations. Building on the services-marketing literature, the present study develops an innovative model for evaluation of the effect of a destination's image on the loyalty intentions of tourists. The study then explores whether market heterogeneity affects this relationship by performing a latent cluster analysis. Four major clusters of tourists emerge—according to the tourists’ need for variety. The results show that there are significant differences among these segments in terms of the effects of a destination's image on tourists’ intentions to return to a destination and their intentions to recommend it to friends and relatives.

Information Processing and Touring Planning Theory

Tourists vary greatly in the extent to which they choose elements of their vacation prior to the commencement of the vacation. For a touring vacation, the extent to which a specific set of locations to visit has been planned prior to departure will vary between individuals. This study presents a structural model of pre-vacation decision-making for a touring vacation. The model demonstrates pre-vacation decision-making as comprising three distinct activities – information search, vacation plans, and vacation bookings – and incorporates characteristics of the vacation and characteristics of the tourist that influence the amounts and types of each of these activities undertaken.

Does nationality affect tourist behavior?

Are all tourists perceived to be alike regardless of nationality, or does nationality make a difference? To answer this question, a group of British tour-guides were administered a questionnaire soliciting their opinions on behavioral characteristics of Japanese, French, Italian, and American tourists on guided tours. The results indicated that in 18 out of 20 behavioral characteristics there was a significant perceived difference between the four nationalities. Tour guides perceived the Japanese to be the most unique among the four, and the Italians as the most similar to others. A pair-comparison found the Italians and French to be perceived as the most similar to each other. The least similar were perceived to be the French—American pair.

Why destination areas rise and fall in popularity

Travel is more popular than ever, so why should destination managers worry? Because their location's attractiveness may be spinning away even as they watch.

Understanding participation patterns and trends in tourism cultural attractions

Previous studies have collectively suggested that most cultural tourists are “up-scaled” (high income earnings, high education, and mature aged). This simplistic profile of cultural tourists, however, does not seem to reflect the increasingly diversified group of cultural tourist attractions. This study examined the effects of socioeconomic and demographic traits of tourists on visitation patterns to 29 different types of cultural attractions using data from a national scale survey (conducted in 2000) of 6405 US respondents. The cultural attractions were grouped as four main types: Festival and Musical Attractions, Commercial Recreation Parks, Local Festivals and Fairs, and Knowledge/Aesthetic Seeking Attractions. The results showed that the participation patterns for diverse cultural attractions were determined by socioeconomic/demographic characteristics as well as the number/distance of trips. The effects of such traits on participation patterns by cultural tourists were different in accordance with the unique nature of each cultural attraction.

Building and testing theories of decision making by travellers

How does the tourism literature model major recreational travel decisions? What influences do the “grand models” in consumer research have on tourist destination choice models? This article provides building-block propositions for creating useful theories of decision making by travelers via a qualitative review of the tourist decision-making literature. The grand models of decision-making in consumer research inform the propositions advanced. The article describes trends in developing traveler destination choice models. Along with examining decision-making propositions from the literature, the article covers important issues in need of resolution for making advances in understanding, describing, and predicting tourist decision-making.

The Impact of Co-Branding on Post-Purchase Behaviors in Family Restaurants

Co-branding is increasingly becoming a popular strategy in the hospitality industry. In general, co-branding can be defined as several brands collaborating in technology development, marketing, or production while keeping their independence as separate business entities (Stewart, 1995. Marketing News 29(4), 5). This study is designed to examine the effects of co-branding cards on post-purchase behaviors such as customer loyalty and purchase patterns in family restaurants in Korea. This study further investigates how these effects are different by types of family restaurants (i.e., full-service versus buffet). The result indicates that co-branding cards can be an effective marketing tool that helps family restaurants to build both behavioral and attitudinal customer loyalty. It is also found that although co-branding cards may be a successful strategy to encourage more frequent visits, the strategy may not always lead to a higher profit margin per customer.

Are hotels serving quality? An exploratory study of service quality in the Scottish hotel sector.

The importance of tourism to Scotland, the criticality of the hotel sector to its growth and the link between service quality and business profitability provide the rationale for this study. Although service quality in the hotel industry has been well researched, there is little comparative research across the Scottish hotel sector on service quality aspects. This study examines service quality across small, medium and large hotels in Scotland to establish management and customers’ current perceptions of service quality performance. Empirical findings indicate service is being lost by the focus of the Scottish QA scheme on tangibles and there are major inconsistencies in service quality performance across the sector. The implications of the findings and avenues for future research are delineated in the study.

Is the hotel classification system a good indicator of hotel quality?: An application in Spain

This paper analyses whether the hotel classification system is a good indicator of hotel quality, where quality is defined to be satisfying the expectations and needs of the client. We conducted our research in Spain, where a five-category system using stars is employed. To be exact, the hotel sector of one autonomous community (Cantabria, located in northern Spain) was studied, given that it is these autonomous regions that have exclusive authority to regulate and promote tourism. The results of the study confirm that even though significant quality differences are seen between the different categories, the ranking by quality does not correspond to that by categories. This supports the idea that quality is associated with the delivery of a service according to client expectations, more than it is with establishment category.

Hospitality and Tourism Marketing: Recent Developments in Research and Future Directions

This study reviews marketing research published in selected hospitality and tourism journals for the period of 2002–2003. The review includes summaries of research topics, industry applications, and methods of study design and data analyses. Significant topical research trends are identified and discussed to raise issues for future research. Included also are the industry-specific current trends and issues that dictate immediate research attention. The gaps between hospitality and tourism marketing research and industry's research needs are addressed to encourage additional research on neglected topics. The study concludes with general suggestions for future hospitality and tourism marketing research.

A Web-enabled hybrid approach to strategic marketing planning: Group Delphi+a Web-based expert system

A Web-enabled hybrid approach to strategic marketing planning is established in this paper. The proposed approach combines the group Delphi technique with a Web-based expert system, called WebStra (developed by the author), to support some key stages of the strategic marketing planning process. The Web-enabled approach is based upon client–server architecture that enables the sharing and delivery of computerised planning models and knowledge via the Internet, intranets or extranets, which allows widespread access by authorised users around the clock, across the world or throughout the company. In order to assess the overall value of the proposed approach, case-based evaluation work has been undertaken. Evaluation findings indicate that the approach is effective and efficient in terms of overcoming time and geographical barriers, saving decision-making time, coupling analysis with human judgment, helping improve decision-making quality, etc.

Relationship Marketing: The Challenge for Destinations

Despite its increasing maturity in the literature, relationship marketing remains an untested concept for destination marketers. This article explores the opportunities and challenges faced by managers of destinations in their attempt to engender loyalty and repeat visitation in a product domain traditionally considered highly complex, fragmented, and difficult to manage. Further, the article analyzes the degree of implantation of relationship marketing in two contrasting destinations: Stockholm and Barbados. The study concludes that the peculiarities of the destination product complicate the building of relationships with the tourist and diminish the suitability and value of such efforts, while promoting the value of greater interorganizational collaboration.

Internet integration in business marketing tactics

Business Marketing Management (BMM) over the Internet has been receiving a “lot of ink” in current periodicals and to a lesser degree in academic literature. Practice changes so rapidly that principles emerging from last month's successes may need revision before they are derived and printed. There is yet a general theory of business-to-business Internet integration. Nonetheless, there is a need to build such knowledge on “the fly,” and to attempt to see patterns even if they have a short life span. The present work takes a look at the state of business-to-business Internet marketing practices as the year 2000 came to a close for larger companies. Not surprisingly, and just like the hardware that make Internet distribution density so high, we find that the Internet is having an impact on: market size and structure, business buying and selling behavior, negotiation strategies and associated pricing practices. Moreover, distribution systems are experiencing a major realignment while logistics optimizing is even greater. The Web and e-mail are becoming more fully integrated into the business communication mix. The attempt here is to learn about the most rapidly emerging and changing communication technology of the past 100 years. Business-driven technology now appears to be driving business marketing tactics and results are augmented through multifaceted complex use of the Internet.

Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the Internet - The state of eTourism research

This paper reviews the published articles on eTourism in the past 20 years. Using a wide variety of sources, mainly in the tourism literature, this paper comprehensively reviews and analyses prior studies in the context of Internet applications to tourism. The paper also projects future developments in eTourism and demonstrates critical changes that will influence the tourism industry structure. A major contribution of this paper is its overview of the research and development efforts that have been endeavoured in the field, and the challenges that tourism researchers are, and will be, facing.

Designing mature internet business strategies: The ICDT model

This paper illustrates a systematic approach to the analysis and classification of business-related Internet strategies, as well as a framework to guide the strategy-building process of companies aiming at redesigning or innovating their products and services in the light of new opportunities and competitive pressures generated by the spread of the Internet. First, the paper shows that current strategies adopted by large and small companies worldwide have been generally based on a narrow, unidimensional interpretation of the Internet, as either an Information, a Communication, a Distribution or a Transaction channel (ICDT Model). The model is then used as a systematic framework guiding (1) the analysis of how traditional products and services are redesigned in the light of the Internet, and (2) the identification of organisational adjustments companies need to undergo in order to fully exploit the business opportunities created by the Internet.

Web-based permission marketing: Segmentation for the lodging industry

Permission marketing is becoming an important tool in maintaining relationships with travelers via the Internet. Its growing importance can be seen in tourism marketing, specifically in the lodging industry. With an increase in industry use, the effectiveness of this technique needs assessment. This paper initiates this process by examining current methods used to collect contact information for the purpose of permission marketing. Three segments of the market are identified and compared based upon their willingness to supply contact information. Significant differences were found in socio-demographics, online habits, trip characteristics, and website design preferences. Implications for lodging marketers are presented and future research topics are discussed.

Evaluating the use of the Web for tourism marketing: a case study from New Zealand

The information-intensive nature of the tourism industry suggests an important role for the Internet and Web technology in the promotion and marketing of destinations. This paper uses the extended Model of Internet Commerce Adoption to evaluate the level of Web site development in New Zealand's Regional Tourism Organisations. The paper highlights the utility of using interactivity to measure the relative maturity of tourism Web sites.

Defining the virtual tourist community: implications for tourism marketing

The notion of community has been a central element of the Internet since its inception. Though research on virtual communities have been extensive the concept appears to be ill defined and the understanding of members’ needs remains fragmented. The purpose of this article is to identify a theoretical foundation of the concept of a virtual tourist community based upon the core characteristics of a virtual communities and the fundamental needs of community members. Perspectives of how one can define and interpret virtual communities within the tourism industry are discussed and issues related to the functions of virtual communities are explored from the member's viewpoint. Implications are made regarding virtual communities in the travel industry from marketing and design perspectives.

The future of airline distribution

This paper provides an overview of the changes taking place in airline distribution and evaluates the impact of these changes on the key stakeholders; the airlines, travel agents, global distribution systems companies and corporate travellers. Conclusions as to the future of airline distribution are drawn. It is likely that global distribution systems deregulation will lead to the fragmentation of airline inventories across different distribution channels. Airlines will seek to increase the proportion of sales they make directly on their own website, thereby reducing their costs. Travel management companies will need to demonstrate their value to corporate clients clearly. Corporate clients are most concerned about ensuring access to the widest possible range of airline products and tariffs, at the same time as distribution costs are removed from the value chain.

The future of eTourism intermediaries

Hitherto, the travel distribution role has been performed by traditional outgoing travel agents , tour operators and incoming travel agencies. They were supported by computer reservation systems, global distribution systems (GDSs) or tour operators’ videotext systems (or leisure travel networks). These traditional electronic tourism intermediaries (eMediaries), particularly GDSs, progressively consolidated their position. The Internet created the conditions for the emergence of new eMediaries, based on three ePlatforms, namely the Internet, interactive digital television and mobile devices. New eMediaries include a wide range of organisations including suppliers (e.g. airlines, hotels etc) selling direct on the Internet by allowing users to directly access their reservation systems; web-based travel agents; Internet portals and vortals, and auction sites. The expected proliferation of Digital TV and mCommerce will gradually intensify competition further. As a result, traditional eMediaries must reengineer their business processes in order to survive and remain competitive. This exploratory research identifies experts’ opinions on the future of both new and traditional eMediaries as well as the evolution of their business models.

An evaluation methodology for hotel electronic channels of distribution

Electronic channels play an increasingly important role in hotel distribution, with most companies utilising a portfolio of channels to reach the customer in an effective manner. However channels cannot simply be added ad infinitum as they emerge; system complexity, technical factors and the management overhead associated with using multiple channels mean that choices must be made between alternative solutions. However, little is understood about how an electronic channel of distribution might be best evaluated. This study, combining both qualitative and quantitative approaches through a Delphi study, explored expert opinion on the key factors involved. Factors generated in the initial round of the study were subsequently refined, rated and ranked by the expert group to identify the key factors for consideration in both the channel adoption and continued use decision making process. In contrast to existing literature on channel evaluation, this revealed that operational and performance factors, rather than financial or strategic issues, should be of prime consideration in the adoption process.

A needs-functions model of tourism distribution

This paper contributes to the development of a stronger conceptual basis for the study of tourism distribution by presenting a generalized model emphasizing the needs of tourists and the functions required to meet them. The model is developed by synthesizing and reinterpreting a large body of empirical findings from New Zealand in the light of the fundamental principles of distribution drawn from the wider literature. It is structured around the needs, expressed in terms of time, place, form, and possession utilities, of three segments—independent, customized, and package—and the functions undertaken by suppliers, intermediaries, and the tourists themselves in three locations: the market, en route, and at the destination.

Balamory revisited: An evaluation of the screen tourism destination-tourist nexus

It is well-established that tourism induced by film and television (TV) (screen tourism) is a phenomenon of global significance, and a number of studies since the 1990s have explored its impacts on specific destinations and communities. While some research provides insights into motivations of screen tourists, understanding of the experiences of screen tourists in film and TV locations remains an emerging area of inquiry. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to explore the interface between the screen tourist and the destination. The results of empirical research with screen tourists to the Isle of Mull (Scotland) to view the filming location for the children's TV show Balamory are discussed. First, the degree to which people are attracted to a location through film connections and the types of visits are explored. Second, the nature of visit experiences is analysed, allowing some consideration of emerging issues for both visitors and the destination. Third, the visitor propensity to return for a future visit is examined. The paper identifies that the lower the influence of Balamory for the visit, the higher the level of adult satisfaction, and that a return visit was more likely if visitors were satisfied with their trip, especially if Balamory was not the only reason for the visit. A structural equation modelling approach is adopted to explore some of the issues induced by an evaluation of visit experiences and the perceived likelihood of repeat visits, generating a range of widely applicable implications for screen tourism destination management and development.

Virtual experience vs. brochures in the advertisement of scenic spots: How cognitive preferences and order effects influence advertising effects on consumers

Virtual experience has begun to play a significant role in the marketing and promotion for the tourism industry. This article demonstrates that the advertising effects of traditional brochures vs. virtual experience would be contingent on consumers’ cognitive preferences. The traditional use of brochures in advertising would be more effective for verbalizers, whereas the virtual experience mode would be more effective for visualizers. Under a hybrid of the two advertising modes, a recency effect was found indicating that the subsequent or more recently experienced advertising mode would generate a greater impact. Moreover, the recency effect of traditional brochures was more apparent for verbalizers, whereas the recency effect of virtual experience was more pronounced for visualizers. The findings provide insights into the contingent use of traditional brochures, the use of virtual experience, and the use of hybrid advertising.

Brochures, usefulness and image

Tourist information has been shown to have an important influence on the choice of vacation destinations. This article studies brochures, their significance as image generators, and their influence on the selection of destinations. The study sought to discover which features in this medium are more relevant in image generation and destination choice using logistic regression analysis. The analysis is based on data collected from tourists in Madrid, Spain. The results establish a model of usefulness of brochures in order to propose recommendations for their design and content. Implications pertain to the development of theoretical understandings about the influence of the information sources on destination image, destination choice, and satisfying tourist needs.

Quality and value network marketing travel clubs

Membership programs are important business modes and marketing tools among tourism and hospitality organizations. With a paid vacation travel club as the empirical environment, the study found that perceived quality and value for the organization have more than one dimension in a membership setting. Based on this different structure and mainly mediated by membership value, both product and membership quality positively affected value for the organization; and the latter exhibited much stronger power. As a result, it is easier for these programs to increase commitment and cooperation than to increase retention by managing membership quality.

The impact of using non-media information sources on the future use of mass media information sources: The mediating role of expectations fulfillment

An empirical study of 350 tourists reveals that using non-media information sources for planning tourist trips influences expectations fulfillment. The use of non-media information sources also has a direct impact on the future use of mass media information sources for future tourist trip planning, as well as an indirect impact through expectations fulfillment. More specifically, the main determinants of expectations fulfillment of local infrastructure are commercial brochures, travel agents and internet; expectations fulfillment of entertainment structures is affected by institutional brochures, travel agents and the internet; future use of mass media sources is influenced by expectations fulfillment of local infrastructure and entertainment structures; this factor is also influenced by past use of institutional brochures and the internet. Discussion centers on the implications of this model to theory and managerial development of tourism and services strategies. Directions for future research are also presented.

Marketing the competitive destination of the future

Destination marketing is increasingly becoming extremely competitive worldwide. This paper explains the destination concept and attempts to synthesise several models for strategic marketing and management of destinations. It provides an overview of several techniques widely used and illustrates examples from around the world. The paper also explains that marketing of destinations should balance the strategic objectives of all stakeholders as well the sustainability of local resources. Destinations need to differentiate their products and develop partnerships between the public and private sector locally in order to co-ordinate delivery. Taking advantage of new technologies and the Internet also enables destinations to enhance their competitiveness by increasing their visibility, reducing costs and enhancing local co-operation. Destination marketing must lead to the optimisation of tourism impacts and the achievement of the strategic objectives for all stakeholders.

Relationship marketing: The challenge for destinations

Despite its increasing maturity in the literature, relationship marketing remains an untested concept for destination marketers. This article explores the opportunities and challenges faced by managers of destinations in their attempt to engender loyalty and repeat visitation in a product domain traditionally considered highly complex, fragmented, and difficult to manage. Further, the article analyzes the degree of implantation of relationship marketing in two contrasting destinations: Stockholm and Barbados. The study concludes that the peculiarities of the destination product complicate the building of relationships with the tourist and diminish the suitability and value of such efforts, while promoting the value of greater interorganizational collaboration.

The effectiveness of regional marketing alliances: A case study of the Atlantic Canada Tourism Partnership 2000-2006

Strategic alliances have become a common strategy in tourism marketing. These alliances take many different forms, and operate with different objectives. Too often, though, alliances are created without realistic expectations, clear operating procedures, or objective criteria by which to evaluate success. This case study reviews a tourism marketing alliance that has been successfully created and operated for a number of years, the Atlantic Canada Tourism Partnership. The partnership brings together the tourism ministries of four Canadian provinces, four industry associations, and the federal government. The basic role of the partnership is to promote Atlantic Canada in the US and selected overseas markets. This case discusses the strategic approach and results of the partnership and concludes with lessons learned from the case study and identification of areas for further improvements in the partnership.

Destination information systems

This paper discusses the role played by national and regional tourism offices in the provision and distribution of destination information. Issues in the structure and design of destination information systems using computer technology are discussed and contrasted with commercial computer reservation systems. Issues addressed include organizational and economic structure of the systems, typologies of information and data sources, quality control of the data, technologies used, and interfaces with other tourism industry electronic marketplaces. Five European destination information systems in Austria, Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and England are utilized to illustrate some of the important issues in the systems development.

Marketing hotels using Global Distribution Systems

No abstract available

Hospitality crisis management practices: the Israeli case

This study attempts to examine hospitality crisis management practices within the context of the Israeli hospitality industry. The study develops a questionnaire that evaluates the importance and usage of four categories of practices: marketing, hotel maintenance, human resources, and governmental assistance. The findings illustrate which practices managers consider important and which practices managers actually use during an industry crisis. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research and management of crises.

Marketing-channel relationships: Turkey's resort purveyors' interactions with international tour operators

Turkey's national policy of expanding the number of hotel rooms nationwide over the past two decades has been successful in increasing supply, but at a cost. The government offered strong incentives for entrepreneurs to open hotels on the nation's Mediterranean and Aegean coasts. Many of the hotels that opened as a result, particularly those in low-price tiers, offer repetitive concepts and are not professionally managed. As a consequence, Turkey's resort operators rely heavily on international package-tour operators to fill their rooms. What has turned into an oversupply of rooms gives the tour operators market power over the lodging operators, forcing the latter into price competition. To compensate for their lack of income, the lodging operators offer minimal services (or are unable to offer good service). A particular challenge to the hoteliers is the tour operators' practice of changing bookings at the last minute, which causes lodging operators with unused capacity to accept low rates for otherwise empty rooms. While Turkey's lodging entrepreneurs probably cannot change the external factors that force them to accept low prices, they could address their internal problems of lack of cooperation and poor management skills.

Antecedents and consequences of relationship quality in hotel industry

This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of relationship quality. This study will help hotel managers to develop and implement effective relationship marketing strategies. Effective usage of relationship marketing strategies will be able to improve hotel performance such as share of purchases, relationship continuity, and word of mouth. To analyze data collected from 12 five-star hotels in Seoul, the linear structural relationship (LISREL) model was used to identify structural characteristics of relationship management between service providers and guests. The empirical results of this study were threefold. First, greater service providers’ relational and customer orientation resulted in higher relationship quality. Second, better service providers’ attributes resulted in higher relationship quality. Third, higher relationship quality resulted in higher share of purchases and better relationship continuity and share of purchases.

Marketing hotels using global distribution systems Revisited

No abstract available

Customer loyalty: the future of hospitality marketing

For many years hospitality firms have believed that the goal of marketing is to create as many new customers as possible. While hoteliers believed it was important to satisfy the guests while they were on the property, the real goal was to continue to find new customers. This constant search for new customers is called conquest marketing. In the future, conquest marketing will not be sufficient. Instead firms need to practice loyalty marketing or retention marketing. The authors believe that this will be the successful wave of the future in hospitality. The goal of this paper is to present a framework for understanding customer loyalty. We do this first by examining the economics of loyalty. We then define loyalty and explain the difference between frequency programs and loyalty programs. We also show why satisfaction does not equal loyalty. We then introduce the Loyalty Triangle©, which provides a framework for building customer loyalty. Each leg of the Loyalty Triangle© is then examined in-depth, including examples of how hotel companies use the Loyalty Triangle© to develop strategy. Next we present ways to measure the success of loyalty programs. Finally, we present future research issues.

Important issues for a growing timeshare industry

Timeshares—which involve the purchase of the use of resort accommodations for an interval of time—have become a relatively common way for people to vacation. Even so, the industry still has achieved just a 3-percent penetration of U.S. households with incomes over $50,000. A survey of 127 timeshare executives in the United States found that the industry's greatest challenges come from issues involving marketing and the industry's image (e.g., many potential clients still remember the high-pressure tactics that brought the industry into question 20 to 30 years ago). Timeshare developers have formed a trade association to address some of those image issues, but not all companies subscribe to that group. Other marketing issues include the overall cost of sales and marketing—in particular, the cost of developing leads. The process of finding customers is complicated by the fact that the individual states regulate timeshare sales, and a company must be registered in a state to offer timeshares to residents of that state. This matter impedes the use of the internet for timeshare sales. A final important issue is human resources: finding, retaining, and training employees and managers is difficult for timeshare companies (as it is for hotels), partly because they operate in resort areas where labor resources generally are already spread thin.

Economic Significance of Cruise Tourism

Cruise business is a growing segment of the international tourism market. While there have been studies of its economic impacts on a national level, the issues of the costs and benefits and their distribution have received scant attention. This paper develops a framework for assessing the economic impacts of cruise tourism for a nation and its subregions. It further explores how the framework can be used to estimate the relevant benefits and costs. A case study of cruise tourism in Australia shows how the framework can be implemented and discusses some policy implications. This analysis can facilitate future research, empirical studies, and strategy development relevant to cruise tourism.

Cruise Ship Tourism

No abstract available

The Mcdonaldization thesis and cruise tourism

This paper explores the extent to which current trends within the cruiseship sector exemplify the five core principles that underpin the McDonaldization thesis. There are some ships that possess attributes consistent with the core principles: efficiency, calculability, predictability, control, and the “irrationality of rationality”. However, these vessels also exhibit qualities that are, in certain ways, inconsistent with some of these principles. Risk and post-Fordist customization, for example, have influenced cruise tourism in ways that are sometimes difficult to reconcile with McDonaldization thesis. This paper demonstrates that this thesis does not adequately speak to the nature of production and consumption on board “supersized” cruiseships.

Caribbean cruise tourism: Globalization at sea

Caribbean cruise tourism provides a particularly illuminating vantage point for understanding the processes of globalization in the world today. After documenting the rapid expansion of this business, the paper explores three central manifestations of globalization at work in the Caribbean cruise industry: the restructuring of the industry in the face of global competition, capital mobility, and labor migration; new patterns of global ethnic recruitment and stratification, including their incorporation into the product marketed to tourists; and deterritorialization, cultural theming, and simulation. The paper asserts that this “globalization at sea” illustrates the contradictions, ambiguities, and unchartered course of contemporary globalization processes.

Frequent Flyer Program: a case study of China airline's marketing initiative: Dynasty Flyer Program

A common marketing technique widely adopted in the airline industry, Frequent Flyer Program (FFPs), was investigated. The objectives of the study are to: (1) illustrate the role of FFPs in the airline industry; and (2) determine the reasons for the utilization of FFPs by airlines using China Airlines as a case study. The fundamental rationale for utilizing FFPs as a marketing technique was identified and examined through an extensive literature review. A questionnaire specifically developed for this study was used to gather data along with interviews of selected executives. The factors affecting the success and/or failure of the FFPs from the viewpoints of both carriers and passengers, the role of FFP partners, economic implications of the FFPs and the role of technology for effective implementation of FFPs are discussed. The results clearly indicate the importance of FFPs as an effective marketing technique in the airline industry with positive implications for the financial performance of the carriers involved and their strategic alliance partners.

The purest of human pleasures: the characteristics and motivations of garden visitors in Great Britain

The practice of visiting gardens has received little research attention in the international tourism research literature, compared with other types of attraction. Globally, garden visiting is a widespread activity, as suggested by the existence of garden visiting schemes, the popularity of garden visiting-based holidays, and the promotion of gardens in local, regional and national tourism development strategies. Great Britain, where garden visits amount to about 16 million each year, is characterised as a nation of garden lovers, and the garden visiting sector is significant in terms of the continued growth in recorded visitor numbers since the 1970s. In an attempt to redress the paucity of research on garden visiting and to highlight the significance and complexities of the sector, the findings of a survey on garden visitors are reported. The paper presents the characteristics, behaviour and motivation of a sample of 546 visitors to 13 gardens in Great Britain. In the light of the empirical findings, a range of implications relating to demand for garden visiting is discussed.

Managing heritage tourism

This article discusses the findings of a Delphi survey of owners and managers of historic properties, officers of heritage-based organizations, consultants, and academics from across the United Kingdom. The purpose of the study was to investigate the major constraints and imperatives relating to the long-term management of built heritage attractions. Three related issues were assessed: the fundamental mission of heritage attractions; the factors which impact upon decisions relating to charging for tourist entry; and the perceptions of heritage managers as to the respective roles of such attractions and public agencies in funding tourism management and heritage conservation programs. The paper then considers the significance of these issues in assessing potential strategies for moving heritage tourism toward sustainability.

Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the Internet-The state of eTourism research

This paper reviews the published articles on eTourism in the past 20 years. Using a wide variety of sources, mainly in the tourism literature, this paper comprehensively reviews and analyses prior studies in the context of Internet applications to tourism. The paper also projects future developments in eTourism and demonstrates critical changes that will influence the tourism industry structure. A major contribution of this paper is its overview of the research and development efforts that have been endeavoured in the field, and the challenges that tourism researchers are, and will be, facing.

Managing heritage tourism

This article argues that in order to facilitate a more effective transition to sustainability, tourism researchers need to keep abreast of transformations occurring in related fields, especially ecosystem ecology, ecological economics, global change science, and complexity theory. New knowledge from these spheres relating to complex adaptive systems, a necessary retreat from reductionism, extensive integration of human and natural systems, new interpretations of sustainability, and the emergence of sustainability science is of great relevance to contemporary tourism study. The article provides an introduction to the potentially extensive application of this knowledge to tourism and concludes by suggesting a reconceptualization of the field of study to accommodate it.

The future of eTourism intermediaries

This article argues that in order to facilitate a more effective transition to sustainability, tourism researchers need to keep abreast of transformations occurring in related fields, especially ecosystem ecology, ecological economics, global change science, and complexity theory. New knowledge from these spheres relating to complex adaptive systems, a necessary retreat from reductionism, extensive integration of human and natural systems, new interpretations of sustainability, and the emergence of sustainability science is of great relevance to contemporary tourism study. The article provides an introduction to the potentially extensive application of this knowledge to tourism and concludes by suggesting a reconceptualization of the field of study to accommodate it.

A perceptual mapping of online travel agencies and preference attributes

Planning and booking a trip online is now increasingly common for travelers. This manuscript addresses two purposes. One is to investigate the important choice attributes of online travel agencies from which online customers may select. Two, the study identifies the current positions of seven online travel agencies in the perception of the customer. The data for this study was collected from the directories of seven universities through an online survey. In terms of the importance of online travel agency attributes, finding low fares was the most critical followed by security. Customers considered various attributes simultaneously, other than bargain price and security. Furthermore, the result from the multidimensional scaling showed how travelers perceived the seven online travel agencies in comparison with each other. The results also revealed that each online agency had some different patterns based on travelers’ perceptions in terms of web features, user friendliness and security, and finding low fares.

Influential factors and relational structure of Internet banner advertising in the tourism industry

The Internet serves as a major marketing and communication tool in the tourism industry; it is, therefore, surprising that there have been few discussions of the structural relationship between tourism and Internet-based advertising. This study focuses on determining how Internet-based advertising has influenced travel agencies operating in the tourism industry. The sample of 605 respondents is, therefore, limited to those with experience of both Internet-based advertising and travel agencies. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), it was found that while both consumer contact and attention paid have a direct relationship to a consumer's attitude of an advertisement, they only indirectly affect the consumer's response. The level of importance ascribed to the content of Internet advertisements creates two distinct responses, indicating that the consumer's degree of product involvement is a significant variable in determining the success of Internet advertisements.